Ternopil Ivan Puluj National Technical University

Каф. електричної інженерії

Physical bases of light sources


1. Educational programs for which discipline is mandatory:

# Educational stage Broad field Major Educational program Course(s) Semester(s)
1 bachelor's 14. Електрична інженерія 141. Електроенергетика, електротехніка та електромеханіка (бакалавр) 3 5

2. The course is offered as elective for all levels of higher education and all educational programs.

3. Information about the author of the course

Full name Myroslav Nakonechnyi
Academic degree PhD
Academic title none
Link to the teacher`s page on the official website of the University
Е-mail (in the domain

4. Information about the course

Study hours structure Lectures: 32
Practical classes: 0
Laboratory classes: 16

Amount of hours for individual work: 42
ECTS credits: 3,0
Teaching language english
Form of final examination credit
Link to an electronic course on the e-learning platform of the university

5. Program of discipline

Description of academic discipline, its goals, subject of study and learning outcomes

The purpose of studying the discipline is the study of fundamental physical phenomena and laws that underlie the structure and functioning of light sources of various types, as well as the methods of their study.
Task of the discipline: provides theoretical knowledge of the basic physical processes that determine the work of radiation sources, the laws of electronic emission from metals and semiconductors, the conditions for the origin and development of discharges, as well as acquiring practical skills in diagnostics of processes in light sources and lamp luminophores .

The place of academic discipline in the structural and logical scheme of study according to the educational program

Prerequisites. List of disciplines, or knowledge and skills, possession of which students needed (training requirements) for successful discipline assimilation


Contents of the academic discipline

Lectures (titles/topics)

Theme 1. Thermionic emission of metals.
Thermionic emission. The full work function. Distribution of electrons by energy in metals. Fermi level. The effective work function.
Theme 2. The Richardson-Deshman equation.
The equation of the thermionic emission of Richardson-Deshman. Experimental determination of constants.
Theme 3. Film and oxide cathodes.
Influence of thin films on the surface of the metal on its thermionic emission. Film and oxide cathodes. The equation of the thermionic emission of an oxide cathode. Experimental determination of the constants of an oxide cathode.
Theme 4. Field electron emission.
Influence of external accelerating field on thermionic emission of metals. Field electron emission. Transparency of the potential barrier and the field electron emission equation.
Theme 5. Photoelectron emission. Photocathodes
The phenomenon of photoelectron emission. Stoletov's law. Einstein's Law. Investigation of the distribution of photoelectrons by energy.
Theme 6. Secondary electronic emission.
Emission of electrons under the influence of electronic bombing. Distribution of secondary electrons by energies. Secondary emission of semiconductors and dielectrics.
Theme 7. Gas discharge
Classification of discharges. The phenomenon of gas amplification. Theory of Townsend. Terms of independent discharge.
Theme 8. Normal and abnormal glow discharge.
Curves of Pashena. Development of an independent discharge. Accumulation of charges in the inter-electrode gap. The appearance of a glow discharge in light sources. Quantitative theory of the cathode region of the glow discharge.
Theme 9. Basic concepts of semiconductor physics. Classification of solids by electrical conductivity. Basics structure of the band theory of solids. A simple model of energy bands. Distribution of electrons by energies in dielectrics and semiconductors.
Theme 10. Radiative and non-radiative recombination. Radiation recombination of electron-hole pairs. Radiation recombination at low and high levels of excitation. Non-radiative recombination.
Theme 11. Electrical properties of p-n junctions.
Current–voltage characteristic junctions. The energy of radiation. Distribution of carriers in homogeneous p-n transitions. Distribution of carriers in p-n-heterojunctions.
Theme 12. Subject emission of light in p-n junctions.
The internal and external quantum emission of radiation, the coefficient of effectiveness. Spectrum of radiation. Temperature dependence of the intensity of radiation.
Theme 13. Junction and carrier temperatures
Carrier temperature and high-energy slope of spectrum. Junction temperature and peak emission wavelength to the maximum of the radiation spectrum. Theory of temperature dependence of diode forward voltage
Theme 14. Heterostructure systems.
Transition metal semiconductor. Transition semiconductor-semiconductor. Heterojunction. Double heterostructure. Doping active region.
Theme 15. LEDs of the visible spectrum.
LEDs based on solid solutions of GaAsP, GaP. LEDs based on AlInGaP / GaAs. The main characteristics of ultra-bright LEDs. Optical and electrical characteristics of ultra-bright LEDs
Theme 16. Light-emitting diodes of white light on the basis of wavelength converters.
Materials for wavelength converters and their efficiency. Luminоphore White LEDs based on luminophores. White LEDs based on UV luminescent crystals.
Theme 17. Organic semiconductors.
Classification of organic semiconductors. Electro- and photoconductivity of organic semiconductors. The mechanism of electrical conductivity. Practical application of organic semiconductors.
Theme 18. Photovoltaic cell.
Photoelectric force. The role of non-main carriers. Voltage and gate photoelectric force. Superficial photoelectric force.

Laboratory classes (topics)

Study of the phenomenon of thermionic emission and determination of the operation of the electron output
Study of the distribution of thermo-electrons at speeds
Study of the phenomenon of secondary electronic emission from the anode of tetrode
Investigation of the phenomenon of photoelectric emission
Study of thermionic emission of oxide cathode
Study of radiation spectra of sodium lamps
Introduction to the method of qualitative spectral analysis and study of spectral characteristics of arc discharge in mercury vapor.
Investigation of plasma gas discharge

Learning materials and resources

Lohmann, Bernd. Angle and spin resolved Auger emission: Theory and applications to atoms and molecules. Vol. 46. Springer Science & Business Media, 2008.
Jensen, Kevin L. Introduction to the physics of electron emission. John Wiley & Sons, 2017.
Xiao, Dengming. Gas discharge and gas insulation. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2016.
E. Fred Schubert Light-Emitting Diodes 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press; 2nd edition 2006.
Dhoble, Sanjay J., and Govind B. Nair. The Fundamentals and Applications of Light-Emitting Diodes: The Revolution in the Lighting Industry. Woodhead Publishing, 2020.
Feng, Zhe Chuan, ed. Handbook of Solid-State Lighting and LEDs. CRC Press, 2017.
Ma, Dongge, and Yonghua Chen. Organic Semiconductor Heterojunctions and Its Application in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes. Vol. 250. Springer, 2017.
Cox, Guy, ed. Fundamentals of Fluorescence Imaging. CRC Press, 2019.

6. Policies and assessment process of the academic discipline

Assessment methods and rating system of learning results assessment

Credited - The student is fluent in the material studied, applies it in practice, is able to solve exercises and problems in standard situations, independently corrects mistakes, the number of which is insignificant
Not credited -Student has the material at the level of individual fragments that make up a small part of the study material

Table of assessment scores:

Assessment scale
(100 points)
(4 points)
90-100 Excellent А
82-89 Good B
75-81 C
67-74 Fair D
60-66 E
35-59 Poor FX
1-34 F
Approved by the department
(protocol №
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