Ternopil Ivan Puluj National Technical University

Каф. біотехнічних систем

Human Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology


1. Educational programs for which discipline is mandatory:

# Educational stage Broad field Major Educational program Course(s) Semester(s)
1 16. Хімічна та біоінженерія 163. Біомедична інженерія (бакалавр) 1, 2 2-3,

2. The course is offered as elective for all levels of higher education and all educational programs.

3. Information about the author of the course

Full name Гевко Олена Василівна
Academic degree Cand. Sc.
Academic title Assoc. Prof.
Link to the teacher`s page on the official website of the University
Е-mail (in the domain

4. Information about the course

Study hours structure Lectures: 68
Practical classes: 0
Laboratory classes: 34

Amount of hours for individual work: 168
ECTS credits: 9
Teaching language english
Form of final examination exam
Link to an electronic course on the e-learning platform of the university

5. Program of discipline

Description of academic discipline, its goals, subject of study and learning outcomes

Purpose: The purpose of the teaching and learning of the discipline is the acquisition of students' scientific knowledge about the structure, functioning and pathology of the human body, to be used as a study of the following disciplines, as well as for the use in professional activities.
The main objectives of the course are to acquaint students with Latin anatomical and physiological terminology; to study theoretical principles of anatomy and physiology of human organs and systems; perfectly master the ability to interpret physiological processes in the norm; to study the theoretical foundations of human pathological processes and methods of their diagnosis.

The place of academic discipline in the structural and logical scheme of study according to the educational program

Prerequisites. List of disciplines, or knowledge and skills, possession of which students needed (training requirements) for successful discipline assimilation

The student must know for successfully master the discipline:
• basic anatomical and physiological characteristics of the human body;
• biochemical and biophysiological processes that occur in the human body.
The student must be able to successfully master a discipline:
• analyze morphological and functional parameters of the organism.

List of disciplines based on learning results from this discipline

Fundamentals of Medical Knowledge
Simulation of biomedical processes and signals
Diagnostic and therapeutic systems

Contents of the academic discipline

Lectures (titles/topics)

1. Theme 1. Introduction. General concepts of anatomy. Latin terminology
2. Theme 2. Osteology. Human skeleton.
3. Theme 3. General artrology.
4. Theme 4. Myology. Topography, structure and functions of individual human muscle groups.
5. Theme 5. The structure of the human nervous system.
6. Theme 6. Anatomy of cranial nerves.
7. Theme 7 The structure of the endocrine glands.
8. Theme 8. Anatomy of sensory organs.
9. Theme 9. Cardiovascular system (heart) anatomy.
10. Theme 10. Anatomy of the respiratory system.
11. Theme 11. Anatomy of the digestive system.
12 Theme 12. Anatomy of the urinary system.
13 Theme 13.General anatomy of immune system.
14 Theme 14. Introduction to physiology.
15 Theme 15. The resting membrane potential and action potentials.
16 Theme 16. Muscle contraction.
17 Theme 17. Physiology of the nervous system.
18 Theme 18. Physiology of analyzer systems.
19 Theme 19. Physiology of cardiovascular system.
20 Theme 20. Electrocardiography.
21 Theme 21. Phonocardiography.
22 Theme 22. Physiology of the respiratory system.
23 Theme 23. Physiology of metabolism, thermoregulation.
24 Theme 24. Physiology of the blood.
25 Theme 25. Physiology of the digestive system.
26 Theme 26. Physiology of the urinary system.
27 Theme 27. Introduction to Pathology.
28 Theme 28. Inflammation.
29 Theme 29. Hemodynamic Disorders.
30 Theme 30. Immunopathology.
31 Theme 31. Neoplasia.
32 Theme 32. Metabolic Diseases.
33 Theme 33. Pathophysiology of kidneys.
34 Theme 34. Pathophysiology of digestion.

Laboratory classes (topics)

№ The theme Number of hours
Full-time studying Part-time studying

1. The structure of a human skeleton. Determination of posture and shape of the foot. 4
2. The structure of sensory organs. 4
3. Anatomy of heart. 4
4. General Physiology of excitable tissues. Resting membrane potential and action potential of nervous and muscular fibres 4
5. Physiology of cardiovascular system. 4
6. Physiology of the digestive system. 4
7. Pathological physiology of the peripheral blood circulation. 4
8. Metabolic Diseases. 4
9 Pathophysiology of digestion. 2

Individual work of a student / postgraduate student

Latin terminology.
Reflex arc.
The structure of blood vessels.
Anatomy of the biliary tract.
Physiology of labor.
The leading system of the heart.
Gastric juice.
Emergency conditions.
Cellular immunity.
Dysfunction of the adrenal glands.
Pathological physiology of gum disease.
Pathological physiology of the kidneys.

Learning materials and resources

1. Guidance for practical classes on Human Anatomy. Y.Reminetskyy, Yaroslav I.Fedonyuk, Volodymyr D.Voloshyn. - Ternopil, Ukrmedknyha. - 2003, 203 p.
2. Handbook of Human Anatomy. Borys Y. Reminetskyy, Illia Y. Herasymiuk, Larysa Y. Fedonyuk, Volodymyr D. Voloshyn. - Ternopil, Ukrmedknyha. - 2018, 224 p.
1. Review of Medical Physiology // W.F. Ganong. – Twentieth edition, 2001. – 746 p. []
2. Textbook of medical physiology / Guyton A. C., Hall J. E., - 13th ed. Elsevier. 2016. – 1038 p. []

1. Silbernagl, S./Lang, F. Color Atlas of. Pathophysiology. 2000/380 pp. []
2. Pathological physiology / Yu.I. Bondarenko, M.R. Khara, V.V. Faifura, N. Ya. Potikha. Ternopil: Ukrmedkniga, 2006. – 312 p.

6. Policies and assessment process of the academic discipline

Policies of the discipline

The policy of the discipline is determined by the system of requirements that the teacher makes to the student when studying the discipline " Human Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology" and is based on the principles of academic virtue.
Requirements relate to attending classes (inadmissibility of absences, delays, etc.); rules of conduct in the classroom (active participation, fulfillment of the required minimum of educational work, etc.) motivation and penalties (for which points can be awarded or deducted, etc.).
The policy of the academic discipline " Human Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology" is built taking into account the norms of Ukrainian legislation regarding academic virtue, the Statute, the provisions of TNTU:
1 Regulations on the organization of the educational process at the Ternopil National Technical University named after Ivan Pulyui - order No. 4 / 7-340 of 05/21/2015 as amended on 06/25/2019 - order No. 4 / 7-622 of 06/27/2019 and of 04/14/2020 - order No. 4 / 7-243 dated 04/15/2020
2 Regulations on the individual curriculum of a student of Ternopil National Technical University named after Ivan Pulyuy (new edition) - order No. 4 / 7-669 of 09/25/2020
3 Regulations on academic mobility of participants in the educational process of Ternopil National Technical University named after Ivan Pulyuy
4 Regulations on the assessment of applicants for higher education of the Ternopil National Technical University named after Ivan Pulyuy (new edition) - order No. 4 / 7-670 of 09/25/2020
5 Provisions on academic mobility of students of TNTU named after I. Puluy - order No. 4 / 7-454 of 16.07.2013
6 Regulations on the settlement of conflict situations in the Ternopil National Technical University named after Ivan Pulyuy - order No. 4 / 7-164 of 03/01/2021
7 Regulations on the final semester control of the learning outcomes of students of the Ternopil National Technical University named after Ivan Pulyuy - order No. 4 / 7-122 of February 17, 2020
8 Temporary procedure for semester control and certification of applicants for higher education of Ternopil National Technical University named after Ivan Pulyuy - order No. 4 / 7-350 of 05/25/2020
Regulations on the prevention of academic plagiarism at the Ternopil National Technical University named after Ivan Pulyuy - order No. 4 / 7-964 dated 01.11.2019 as amended on 19.12.2019 order No. 4 / 7-114 dated 12.02.2020, as amended on 26.01.2021 - order No. 4 / 7-72 dated 02.02.2021
Regulations on the academic virtue of the participants in the educational process of the Ternopil National Technical University named after Ivan Pulyuy - order No. 4 / 7-969 dated 01.11.2019
Charter of Ternopil National Technical University. I. Pulyuya (new edition) - order of the Ministry of Education and Science No. 248 of February 25, 2019

Assessment methods and rating system of learning results assessment

Evaluation for Module 1
Laboratory works - 25,
Independent work -5
Test - 10
Module 1-40
Evaluation for Module 2
Laboratory works - 20,
Independent work -5
Test - 10
Module 2-35
Evaluation for Module 3
Laboratory works - 25,
Independent work -5
Test - 10
Module 3-40
Evaluation for Module 4
Laboratory works - 20,
Independent work -5
Test - 10
Module 1-35

Table of assessment scores:

Assessment scale
(100 points)
(4 points)
90-100 Excellent А
82-89 Good B
75-81 C
67-74 Fair D
60-66 E
35-59 Poor FX
1-34 F

7. Additional Information


1. Anatomical Terminology. Axes, planes of the human body.
2. The skeleton of the trunk (general information).
3. The structure of the vertebrae.
4. Thorax as a whole.
5. Upper extremity anatomy.
6. Lower extremity anatomy.
7. Anatomy of the skull.
8. The human muscular system.
9. Anatomy of a joint. Classification of joints, types of joints, structure joints.
10. Neurons and Glial Cells.
11. Anatomy of the central nervous system.
12. Peripheral nervous system anatomy.
13. The structure of the endocrine glands.
14. Structure of the Heart.
15. Lung anatomy.
16. Airway anatomy.
17. Urinary organs.
18. Anatomy of the kidney.
19. Anatomy of sensory organs.
20. Anatomy of the digestive system.
1. Physiology as the science.
2. Bioelectrical phenomena in nerve cells.
3. Physiology of synapses, interneuronal connections.
4. Functions of the muscular system. Muscle contraction.
5. Physiology of nervous system.
6. Physiology of analyzer systems.
7. Conduction System of the Heart. Cardiac Cycle.
8. Normal electrocardiogram, interpretation.
9. Normal phonocardiogram, interpretation.
10. Physiology of respiratory system, conducting zone.
11. Physiology of respiratory system, respiratory zone.
12. Mechanisms of breathing.
13. Physiology of metabolism.
14. Thermoregulation.
15. Physiology of the red blood.
16. Physiology of the white blood.
17. Physiology of the stomach and intestine.
18. Physiology of the pancreas and liver.
19. Formation of urine.
20. Physiology of kidneys.
1. General nosology: health, disease, pathological process, pathological state, pathological reactions.
2. Individual reactivity.
3. General knowledge about inflammation.
4. Inflammation: exudative and proliferative processes.
5. Hemodynamic Disorders.
6. Embolism and infarction.
7. Shok.
8. Mechanisms of immune response of humoral and cellular type.
9. Types of reactivity. Allergy.
10. Tumor etiology. Stages of carcinogenesis.
11. Disorder of carbohydrate metabolism.
12. The metabolic syndrome.
13. Diabetes mellitus.
14. Pathophysiology of kidneys.
15. Chronical renal insufficiency.
16. Disturbance of stomach functions.
17. Stomach ulcer.
18. Disorders of appetite. Anorexia.
19. Pathophysiology of digestion.
20. Pathophysiology of intestine.
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